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Optimizing E2E Testing with AI: The Usage-Centric Paradigm

Usage-centric Approach,

In the world of software development, End-to-End (E2E) testing, especially through the Usage-Centric approach, plays a pivotal role, simulating real-life scenarios and user interactions within production-like environments. This testing phase distinguishes itself from unit, integration, and systems tests by focusing on validating real-world scenarios, user experiences, business processes, and end-to-end user journeys.

E2E testing should not replace other testing phases within the software development lifecycle. Instead, it serves as a complementary layer, extending test coverage boundaries and unveiling hidden scenarios, as well as uncovering different types of defects, such as integration problems, broken user workflows, and issues related to third-party integrations, that may not be apparent in individual component tests.

E2E testing and test methodologies.
Usage-centric testing

Challenges and Advantages of E2E Testing:

E2E testing offers substantial advantages:

  • It amplifies test coverage by scrutinizing complete end-to-end workflows, ensuring seamless component and subsystem integration.
  • E2E testing uncovers implicit use cases, not always explicitly documented in requirements.
  • It acts as a shield against regression defects, preventing disruptions to previously functioning features.
  • And it also validates third-party integrations, APIs, and subsystems, ensuring the overall integrity of the system and its external integration dependencies.

However, E2E testing introduces challenges. Test case design often misaligns with user behavior and usage patterns, relying on assumptions rather than data-driven insights from production usage. Selecting and prioritizing test cases can become complex in the absence of data-driven criteria, resulting in challenges in setting priorities. Test maintenance becomes difficult due to lengthy, UI-intensive tests that can become flaky over time. Responding to evolving user behavior in production poses an additional challenge, as it can be challenging to continuously monitor and adjust the end-to-end test strategy based on real-time user interactions and behaviors.

Revolutionizing E2E Testing: Embracing a Usage-Centric Approach for Precise Test Coverage

The Usage-Centric approach to E2E testing represents a significant shift in perspective, aiming to address the current challenges associated with E2E test implementation, with a primary focus on harnessing real usage data obtained through production monitoring. This data is employed to pinpoint and prioritize common usage patterns, frequently accessed features, critical user journeys, and high-impact areas.

This approach bridges the testing gap by anchoring itself in real data, eliminating assumptions and human errors. It uncovers implicit use cases and scenarios that may not have been explicitly documented in initial requirements and uses data for test selection and prioritization, ensuring finely tuned test coverage. Usage-centric approach adapts to variations in user behavior related to changes in application, seasonal events, holidays, or promotions, surfacing scenarios that may not have been foreseen during initial planning.

Challenges arise in data collection, monitoring, and analysis in the Usage-Centric approach. Accurate data collection is crucial but complex due to data volume, privacy concerns, and regulatory compliance. Data analysis demands advanced capabilities and skills, including identifying usage patterns, selecting and prioritizing test cases, and adapting to changing user behavior. Maintaining tests presents ongoing difficulties because of the lengthy and UI-intensive nature of the tests, which have the potential to become unreliable over time.

Challenges of the Usage-centric Testing approach

Usage-centric approach with AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) can enhance the Usage-Centric approach significantly. AI streamlines and automates data collection and monitoring, reducing manual efforts and errors. It excels in precise usage pattern identification, even in vast data volumes. AI’s data-driven approach to test selection ensures objective decision-making, avoiding biases. It adapts seamlessly to evolving user behavior by continuously analyzing new data and recommending adjustments to the E2E testing strategies. Artificial Intelligence can generate/maintain test cases faster and more efficiently than human beings, reducing the time required for test case maintenance and enabling testing teams to allocate their time and resources more efficiently.

AI advantages include:

  • processing vast data volumes,
  • recognizing intricate patterns,
  • providing data-driven insights,
  • enhancing the E2E testing process.

However, AI adoption isn’t without challenges. A lack of dedicated out-of-the-box tools can lead to tools sprawl, complicating implementation. Training and tuning AI models can be hard and resource-intensive. There is often a skill gap, with a shortage of testing professionals possessing the necessary AI expertise.

AI in Usage-centric testing approach


In conclusion, merging the Usage-Centric approach with AI presents an appealing path in software quality assurance. It promises efficiency, effectiveness, and alignment with real user behavior. While challenges exist, addressing them and investing in the right AI tools and expertise can lead to a future where E2E testing becomes streamlined, precise, and aligned with real user behavior.

Watch the replay of our webinar here:

Author: Cristiano Caetano

Head of Growth at Smartesting

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